Gender, Nature, and Nurture
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
This engaging text presents the latest scientific findings on gender differences, similarities, and variations--in sexuality, cognitive abilities, occupational preferences, personality, and social behaviors. The impact of nature and nurture on gender is examined from the perspectives of genetics, molecular biology, evolutionary theory, neuroanatomy, sociology, and psychology. The result is a balanced, fair-minded synthesis of diverse points of view. Dr. Lippa's text sympathetically summarizes each side of the nature-nurture debate, and in a witty imagined conversation between a personified "nature" and "nurture," he identifies weaknesses in the arguments offered by both sides. His review defines gender, summarizes research on gender differences, examines the nature of masculinity and femininity, describes theories of gender, and presents a "cascade model," which argues that nature and nurture weave together to form the complex tapestry known as gender.
Gender, Nature, and Nurture, Second Edition features:
*new research on sex differences in personality, moral thought, coping styles, sexual and antisocial behavior, and psychological adjustment;
*the results of a new meta-analysis of sex differences in real-life measures of aggression;
*new sections on non-hormonal direct genetic effects on sexual differentiation; hormones and maternal behavior; and on gender, work, and pay; and
*expanded accounts of sex differences in children's play and activity levels; social learning theories of gender, and social constructionist views of gender.
This lively "primer" is an ideal book for courses on gender studies, the psychology of women, or of men, and gender roles. Its wealth of updated information will stimulate the professional reader, and its accessible style will captivate the student and general reader.
weak—which, by the way, I don't buy—stereotypes exert their effects over and over again, and these cumulative effects may be much stronger than any single effect. If teachers hold even weak beliefs that boys are more able than girls in math, then imagine the cumulative effect of these beliefs, when teachers interact hour by hour, day after day, and year after year with girls and boys. It's not as easy to assess the real-life effects of stereotypes as you suggest. Nature: I don't think we're
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argued that both women and men view themselves in relation to other people. However, women conceive of themselves more in terms of warm, one-on-one, intimate relations (e.g., daughter, spouse, best friend), whereas men conceive of themselves more in terms of social groups and hierarchical relationships (e.g., boss, member of sports team, American). Baumeister and Sommer (1997) put the matter succinctly, "... female sociality is dyadic, whereas male sociality is tribal" (p. 39). Gabriel and
differences. However, some boys may have more masculine models than others, and some girls may have more feminine models than others. To the extent that children imitate same-sex parents and siblings—who necessarily vary in their own levels of masculinity and femininity—they will vary somewhat in the degree of masculinity and femininity they learn and display. Social learning theorists make a distinction between the acquisition and the performance of behaviors. Although children can learn how to
less stereotyped over the past 20 years, gender bias still remains. One study summarized 25 years of research on gender stereotyping in TV commercials, including studies from America, Australia, Denmark, France, I long Kong, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, and Portugal (Furnham & Mak, 1999), Despite variations across cultures, authority figures in commercials were more often male than female, and product users were more often female than male. Men were more likely to be portrayed in professional roles